Benefits of studying leadership

Leadership skills are inborn and not made, during my study on leadership and management, I have learned many theories and models about leadership, which made me to realise my own leadership styles, in addition the other major challenges of leaders. After completing my undergraduate I wanted to start a new business, but had no plans of joining family business. I started a real estate company, with the existing company name.


Leaders are not only born, but they can also be formed with practicing leadership qualities that relates to Adair’s model (Mullins, 2010).  On the basis of above statement I would state that I was not a born leader, but situations made me leader and my research on leadership and management made me effective leader. During my business, all the mediators and agents were comfortable with me and made a good business with me, we worked as a team or a desired goal. I managed many tasks within the group; they always supported and encouraged me as a leader, since I led the team without any misunderstanding within the team members, as this business creates many problems between teams and individuals. During the one year of my business, I interacted with thousands of individuals and led different groups.


The different individuals and different teams worked with me appreciated my skills and talents in business and maintaining or organising my different teams, many individuals elder who worked with me always supported me and encouraged me that I am good in convincing and leading as well. However I have strengths and few areas to develop in my styles for being more efficient leader, as a leader for this business I would say my strengths are good in communicating, punctual in work, good time management, convincing people easily, a good memory back up of list of properties available and providing it to customers immediately in response to their requirements, these skills were always appreciated by my teams at different situations and tasks. The few areas where I have to develop as a leader is are more strong and confidence while talking, need to be more energetic in work, thus the team members will also be energetic in their work or task.


Finally in my masters at CULC, I have studied about different theories and models of leadership and many of them in detail. In this leadership and management module I got opportunities to learn detailed leadership, where I have changed many of my leadership styles and how to be a leader at different situations. In this module we as a group had a responsibility to perform a small task during the class, which was blocks building here I realised a change in my leadership style, my change resulted in team co-operation and an appreciation of good performance form the tutor. Through this module I understood that I am transformational leader, where I always motivate and influence my team members, with my style of leadership and achieve positive results. Like wise there are several examples where I have learned from this module and hence become an effective leader. 

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Ethical relationships between leaders and their teams

An ethical leadership is a combination of decision-making and behavior, ethics shows conduct, moral, judgment and duty, which is necessary for every individual to become an effective ethical leader, leader has basic major task of developing an ethical organization behavior through ethical decision and to differentiate leadership values of business ethics and leadership with codes of ethics (Hussein, 2007). A person who shows an ethical behavior of ideas, creativity and work to the organization is an ethical leader, an ethical leader who explores the targets, and image of the company should also implement such ways of understanding to their teams. A leader should be authentic, high level of integrity, deep sense and true core value, develop organization, and meet the shareholder expectations, such ethical skills and qualities should be shared with their teams or followers in order to continue the quality within the organization (Jeroen, 2007).


Ethics represents judgment, conduct, duty, values and morals to the leaders and teams, which influences their personal behavior in a positive approach or manner. It plays an important role by determining the relationship effectiveness in the company with ethics of implications.  Collier (2000) explains that the leader should not force any task in to their team members and respecting the team members should be one of the important characteristics of the leader and this will be result in an ethical relationship between the leaders and the team. The leader should give freedom to team members and provide opportunity for them to come up with their own creative and innovative ideas, the leader should not be partial and selfish to come up with only his ideas, every member should be treated equally. The main task or responsibility of a leader is to fulfill the needs of the team member and to achieve the organization goals; the leader should achieve all the required goals step by step (Terry, 2000).


Hussein (2007), states that “ethical goals and ethical means” are different, the finally concluded arguing that ethical means may not surely guide to ethical leads, and at the same time unethical means has a possibility to show ethical results. An ethical leadership is a process of way of living with reality and importantly speaking the truth as well. The leaders way of living with his behavior in the organization will result in the company growth globally. The ethical leadership will lead to its success, the moral values followed by the leaders may lead development of the organization and maintain the trademark in the global market. The leader should rectify his failures from which, he should change his mistakes to a positive note, being loyal does not show his ethical values, it also helps to improve and develop the organization (Jeroen, 2007).


The ethical behavior of the leader creates a solid foundation, for any business of long-term strategy. Hence it is strongly proved the business leaders must follow what they say. One important task for ethical leaders is to perform as entire identity, substituting ethical values in decision-making, preaching, implementing and thinking it is the responsibility for the leaders to follow such values and take up its challenges. Hussein (2007), supports the statement by stating that the above ethical values shows the effectiveness off the leaders, which is completely based on their skills to increase the morality of the team when involving them with the desired goals and objectives. Every individual perform their own ethics and values, which results in their leadership styles. A true and ethical business leader must motivate and encourage employees during all times and levels, making use of different formulas to develop or promote and recognize actions of ethics (Hussein, 2007).    
















Hussein M (2007), Ethical leadership makes the right decision [online] Available from: [24 March 2012].


Jane Collier, Rafael Esteban, (2000) “Systemic leadership: ethical and effective”, Leadership & Organization Development Journal, Vol. 21 Iss: 4, pp.207 – 215 [Online] Available from: [24 March 2012].


Jeroen P.J. de Jong, Deanne N. Den Hartog, (2007) “How leaders influence employees’ innovative behaviour”, European Journal of Innovation Management, Vol. 10 Iss: 1, pp.41 – 64 [Online] Available from: [24 March 2012]


Terry L. Price, (2000) “Explaining ethical failures of leadership”, Leadership & Organization Development Journal, Vol. 21 Iss: 4, pp.177 – 184 [Online] Available from: [24 March 2012]


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Analysis of leaders in global business

A leader is person who has various responsibilities to perform in the company or organisation; leader is responsible for all the works managing the teams and other major aspects within the organisation. Leadership connects to moral or ethical themes with many new approaches, a leader has many tasks to be a successful leader, like motivating the team, being creative and achieving the goals in different ways. A leadership responsible in global business is to combine the macro-view of a business as a political actor with the micro-view of leadership; the diagram below is an example of out comes of responsible leadership in global business (Voegtlin, 2012).



Figure 5: Outcomes of responsible leadership across levels of analysis

Source: Voegtlin (2012)


Steve Jobs was first a co-founder of Apple Computers in 1976 along with Wozniak, his leadership style was never to copy, it was either to admire or criticize, and he never follows any textbook.  The company stock price was down to $ 2 a share, Jobs with his innovation leadership led the company up step by step and the stock price increased to $ 200 a share in 2007. He invents vision, boosts motivation and energy to his employees along with that he as enthusiasm and passion for his work, which we can state as transformational style of leadership. The innovation leadership started with desktop, Macintosh (Mac) laptops, one of the stylish computers was I Mac, the apple was exposed to music I pod. Jobs generally thinks what he does is always right, which indicates his autocratic leadership style; he was always a down-to-earth leader in managerial style “he understood the need for good” (Finkle, 2010). Years back Jobs said, “You know, everybody has a cell phone, but I don’t know one person who likes their cell phone. I want to make a phone that people love.” Later this innovation led to foundation of I phone (Lasseter, 2011).  


Bill Gates the solo leader, founder and CEO of Microsoft Corporation, is a successful leader and leading a business successfully since 1975. From his young days, he walked in the path of his interest, had a clear plan on what he wants to excel and started working on it and became a man of vision, however he was from a family of entrepreneurship. Gates with his friend Allen wanted to make a programming language for a new computer that wasn’t launched in to the market. Later Gates a contract from IBM to produce DOS in 1981, this was a first big step for Microsoft. Gates always used to follow a long-term idea for all his implementations (Cusumano, 2009). Microsoft tops level all over the world, because of Gates innovations and him being a continuous learner (Moore, 2011).


Jobs and Gates have some common factors, as global leaders they have unique thinking, creativity, long term goals, innovation and achieving the desired tasks. They started off with out of box thinking, were they still don’t have tough competitors and today they are top global leaders. Though they were dropped of college, they took it challenging, handled failures and succeeded; the charisma of these leaders is that they are solo in their fields.


The success of any firm or company is based on the leader and followers efficiency, although the strategy is set up by leader, it has to followed correctly by the follower, by communicating correctly to the followers for best outcome. Motivation is another important factor to strengthen the structure of an organisation, while getting extraordinary things done within the company; leaders involve in the following five practices (Kouzes, 2007)


  • Model the structure
  • Inspire a vision
  • Challenge process
  • Make other perform
  • Motivate heart


These five practices ensures leaders success, they are very important aspect of todays leadership.






















Cusumano, M (2009), ‘Technology Strategy and Management: The legacy of Bills Gates’, Communication of The ACM, 52, 1, pp. 25-26, Business Source Complete, EBSCO host [23 March 2012].


Finkle, T, & Mallin, M (2010), ‘Steve Jobs and Apple, INC’, Journal Of The International Academy for case studies, 16, 7, pp. 31-40, Business source complete, EBSCOhost [Online] Available from: [23 March 2012].


Grossman, L, & McCracken, H (2011), ‘The Inventor of the future’, time, 178, 15, pp. 36-44, Academic Source Complete, EBSCO host [23 March 2012].


Kouzes, MJ & Posner ZB, (2007), The Leadership Challenge, 4th Edition, USA: Wiley Higher Education


Kuhn, TR (2011), Leaders of innovation’, Electric Perspectives, 36, 3, p. 6, Business Source Complete, EBSCO host [23 March 2012]


Lasseter, J (2011), ‘Steve Jobs’, Time, 26 December, Academic Search Complete, EBSCO host [Online] available from: < [23 March 2012].


Moore, P (2011), ‘LEADING FROM THE FRONT’, NZ Business, 25, 4, pp. 16-19, Business Source Complete, EBSCO host, [23 March 2012].


Voegtlin, C, Patzer, M, & Scherer, A (2012), Responsible leadership in Global Business: A New Approach to Leadership and its Multi-Level Outcomes’, Journal Of Business Ethics, 105, 1, pp. 1-16, Business source Complete, EBSCO host, [Online] available from: <;  [23 march 2012].

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Change and resistance to change

Organizational change


Change is a constant and inevitable feature, organizational change cannot escape from both organizational and social life and it is a continuous form of change. Change happens anywhere and everywhere, doesn’t matter if we like it or not. Change can be experienced or studied with the effects of the organization, group, society, individual, national or international level. A personal transformational change is an example for the individual change, where the surroundings do not change, but due to the emotional and efficiency of a leader there is a change in the organization. Change can affect any kind of aspect operation of an organization (Mullins, 2010).


Planned organization change

According to Mullins (2010), to face the opportunities or challenges by external environment this step of planning a change in organization takes place; to make or have a secured plan is for the future problems for example new product development, development of technology, uncertain economic conditions. A planned change shows the interest to improve or develop the work through an important way for the organization.  

The basic objectives in general

  • Changing or developing the behavior of members
  • Developing the organization to manage the change in environment
  • Better performance of the organization
  • Improve new customer concern or flexibility; of an organization should be improved
  • Make proper use of the employee’s abilities and skills
  • Improve or develop technologies
  • Workers feel jobs are boring or they are dominated by the supervision
  • Poor performance indication or inefficient communication




Behavior modification



Figure 3: Segments of Planned Change

Source: Mullins (2010)


The above diagram represents the concept of improved performance and planned change involves the three segments process of behavior in a management.

Unfreezing – understanding the need for a change, so that there will be an improvement, minimizing the pressure which keeps up behavior in current form

Movement – implementing changes, developing behavior or new attitudes

Refreezing – new level changes, supporting mechanisms (structure, policies).


Figure 4: Emergent change

                                                              Source: Watkins (2012)


The Emergent change is “based on the assumption that change is a continuous and unpredictable process of aligning and realigning an organisation to its changing environment” (Watkins, 2012).


Resistance to change


On having favorable outcomes or result, resistance to change is still quite common at both organizational and individual level. There are different forms of resistance of change, but it’s not easy to show the exact reasons. The pressure against the change in working management includes: avoiding the necessary needs and members expectations, when they don’t have much information about the nature of change, or they feel the change is not necessary.


Individual resistance

The basic reasons of an individual resistance are as follows.


Loss of freedom: If change is felt as likely to prove increase in control or freedom reduced in terms of action, inconvenience, life gets more difficult, in these cases resistance might take place.

Selective perception: Interpretation of an individual shows a unique image of ‘real’ world and this will end in perception. Managers who are exposed to various ideas or theories may generally categorize as no need to worry and already practice.

Economic implications: Direct or indirect reduction in payment or other rewards, heavy workload for existing pay results in individual resist change.

Habit: The means of comfort and security is served by habit and decision making guide. Making a change in habit, where it needs little effort but well established may be resisted.

Security in past: during the times of difficulties, when exposed to different ideas an individual may reflect on their past. However there is a want to retain comfortable and old ways.



Organizational resistance


Although most of the organizations adapts to its working and external environment, organisations feels good operating within the management, procedures, structure and policies which is designed to deal or work with current situations. Organisations are always against change to ensure its operational effectiveness few of the main factors against organisation change are as follows.


Investment in resources: Large or huge resources are often required by change, where such resources may hold an existing commitment with investments in different ways of strategies or areas.        

Organisation culture: The culture of the organisation may find difficult to change, because of its overtime development.

Past agreements or contracts: The contracts by the organisation with other or third parties, such as different company, governments, suppliers, trade unions, and lastly customers, these agreements can limit changes in behavior.

Maintaining stability: Large-scale companies will be careful with predictability and maintaining stability.

Threats to power: A threat is a forceful change with the influence or power in the company, such as controls decision, information.   














Emerald, (2003) “Change performance to change the culture”, Industrial and Commercial Training [online] available from [21 March 2012]


FORD, J, FORD, L, & D’AMELIO, A (2008), ‘ RESISTANCE TO CHANGE: THE REST OF STORY’, Academy of management Review, 33, 2, pp. 362-377, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, [22 March 2012]. 


Marina, P, & Violeta, S (2011), ‘opportunity to reduce resistance to change in a process of organisation change’, Annals Of The University Of Oradea, Economic Science Series, 20, 2, pp. 698-702, Business source complete, EBSCO host [Online] Available from: <; [22 March 2012].


Mullins, L.J. (2010), Management and Organisational Behaviour, 9th Edition, Harlow:

Pearson Higher Education


Watkins, J (2012), Leading and Change [Online] Available from: <; [22 March 2012].

Yukl, G (2010) Leadership in organisation, Pearson Education; New Jersey

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Theories and Models of Leadership and Management

Anyone can become a leader but not everyone knows how to be a successful leader, where there are many followers behind the successful leader. A successful leader preaches and teaches various theories and models. Earlier the theories were based upon the successful leaders behavior and characteristics, later these theories and models are developing in many, in terms of numbers.





Figure 1: Theories of Leadership and Management

Source: Based on the author, Mullins (2010)



On the above theories, we are going to discuss in detail about two theories,


Traits theory


The first theory states that leaders are born and not made. This theory of leadership has few inbuilt personality traits, or characteristics, which shows difference between leaders and their followers: “the so called Great Person theory of leadership”. This theory concentrates full attention on the male or female in the work and not on work itself. It states that the attention is given or provided to set of leaders rather that to people practicing or training for leadership (Mullins 2010: 377).



Limitations of traits theory


On the theory of traits, there are three limitations.


  • There is a bound to be some subjective judgment in determining who is regarded as a ‘good’ or successful leader.
  • The list of possible traits tends to be very long and there is not always agreement on the most important.
  • It ignores the situational factors.



Transformational Leadership Theory


According to Mullins (2010), transformational theory is a process of boosting a strong and high level of motivation within the followers. Through this process it generates the vision for the organization, where as the leader’s talent is to put in good values and high ideals for the followers, and through this it gives a feeling of loyalty, justice and trust. On the organizational perspective transformational leadership theory is a process of transforming the performance of a task in a business.


Components of Transformational Theory


  • Idealized influence – followers are influenced by admiration, respect and charisma of the leader;
  • Inspirational motivation – followers who performs challenging and meaningful work, on leader’s behaviour,
  • Intellectual stimulation – leaders, who appreciate the performance and creative problem solving solutions from the followers;
  • Individualized consideration – special concern to the development and growth of followers by the leaders




John Adair associated a general theory on behavioural or functional approach with his ideas and work on action-centered leadership. Achieving the task, team maintenance, and individual needs are the three needs, where the efficient and effective leader depend these three needs within the work team or group (Mullins, 2010).













Figure 2: Adair’s Model

Source: Based on the author, Mullins (2010)


Task needs


  • Achieving the goals
  • Defining work tasks
  • Planning work
  • Allocating resources
  • Organization of responsibilities and duties
  • Checking performance and controlling quality




Team maintenance needs


  • Training groups
  • Appointing sub-leaders
  • Communication within group
  • Maintaining discipline and setting standards
  • Cohesiveness of the group
  • Building team sprit and maintaining morale


Individual needs


  • Training individual
  • Giving status and price
  • Attending personal problems
  • Meeting individual needs




There are no real limitations of motivating a team as such, however there are few barriers to over come. Barriers include absent leader, outdated equipment and attitudes.


  • No extra pay for a motivated employee
  • The leader does not appreciate the best
  • All the workers must fit to be in a team
  • Boss may lack knowledge in developing teams













Larsson, G, & Eld, J (2012), ‘An idea on leadership theory integration’, Management Research Review, 35, 3-4, pp. 177-191, EBSCO host, [20 March 2012]


Mullins, L.J. (2010), Management and Organisational Behaviour, 9th Edition, Harlow:

Pearson Higher Education


Schyns, B, Kiefer, T, Kerschreiter, R, & Tymon, A (2011), Teaching Implicit Leadership Theories to develop Leaders ad leadership: How and why it can make a difference’, Academy of Management Learning & Education, 10, 3, pp. 397-408, Business Source Complete, EBSCO host, [Online] Available from:  [20 March 2012].

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