Change is a constant and inevitable feature, organizational change cannot escape from both organizational and social life and it is a continuous form of change. Change happens anywhere and everywhere, doesn’t matter if we like it or not. Change can be experienced or studied with the effects of the organization, group, society, individual, national or international level. A personal transformational change is an example for the individual change, where the surroundings do not change, but due to the emotional and efficiency of a leader there is a change in the organization. Change can affect any kind of aspect operation of an organization (Mullins, 2010).
Planned organization change
According to Mullins (2010), to face the opportunities or challenges by external environment this step of planning a change in organization takes place; to make or have a secured plan is for the future problems for example new product development, development of technology, uncertain economic conditions. A planned change shows the interest to improve or develop the work through an important way for the organization.
The basic objectives in general
- Changing or developing the behavior of members
- Developing the organization to manage the change in environment
- Better performance of the organization
- Improve new customer concern or flexibility; of an organization should be improved
- Make proper use of the employee’s abilities and skills
- Improve or develop technologies
- Workers feel jobs are boring or they are dominated by the supervision
- Poor performance indication or inefficient communication
Figure 3: Segments of Planned Change
Source: Mullins (2010)
The above diagram represents the concept of improved performance and planned change involves the three segments process of behavior in a management.
Unfreezing – understanding the need for a change, so that there will be an improvement, minimizing the pressure which keeps up behavior in current form
Movement – implementing changes, developing behavior or new attitudes
Refreezing – new level changes, supporting mechanisms (structure, policies).
Figure 4: Emergent change
Source: Watkins (2012)
The Emergent change is “based on the assumption that change is a continuous and unpredictable process of aligning and realigning an organisation to its changing environment” (Watkins, 2012).
Resistance to change
On having favorable outcomes or result, resistance to change is still quite common at both organizational and individual level. There are different forms of resistance of change, but it’s not easy to show the exact reasons. The pressure against the change in working management includes: avoiding the necessary needs and members expectations, when they don’t have much information about the nature of change, or they feel the change is not necessary.
The basic reasons of an individual resistance are as follows.
Loss of freedom: If change is felt as likely to prove increase in control or freedom reduced in terms of action, inconvenience, life gets more difficult, in these cases resistance might take place.
Selective perception: Interpretation of an individual shows a unique image of ‘real’ world and this will end in perception. Managers who are exposed to various ideas or theories may generally categorize as no need to worry and already practice.
Economic implications: Direct or indirect reduction in payment or other rewards, heavy workload for existing pay results in individual resist change.
Habit: The means of comfort and security is served by habit and decision making guide. Making a change in habit, where it needs little effort but well established may be resisted.
Security in past: during the times of difficulties, when exposed to different ideas an individual may reflect on their past. However there is a want to retain comfortable and old ways.
Although most of the organizations adapts to its working and external environment, organisations feels good operating within the management, procedures, structure and policies which is designed to deal or work with current situations. Organisations are always against change to ensure its operational effectiveness few of the main factors against organisation change are as follows.
Investment in resources: Large or huge resources are often required by change, where such resources may hold an existing commitment with investments in different ways of strategies or areas.
Organisation culture: The culture of the organisation may find difficult to change, because of its overtime development.
Past agreements or contracts: The contracts by the organisation with other or third parties, such as different company, governments, suppliers, trade unions, and lastly customers, these agreements can limit changes in behavior.
Maintaining stability: Large-scale companies will be careful with predictability and maintaining stability.
Threats to power: A threat is a forceful change with the influence or power in the company, such as controls decision, information.
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Pearson Higher Education
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